NEHRP Clearinghouse

Title
Morphology and Structure of Loihi Seamount Based on Seabeam Sonar Mapping.
File
ADA204943.pdf
Author(s)
Fornari, D. J.; Garcia, M. O.; Tyce, R. C.; Gallo, D. G.
Source
December 10, 1988, 16 p.
Abstract
Loihi Seamount was mapped using Seabeam multibeam sonar, and the resulting data were processed to produce bathymetric maps with a 10-m contour interval and shaded-relief perspective images. Analysis of morphological and structural data recorded in the maps and images indicates that constructional volcanism on Loihi has been localized predominantly along its southern and northern rift zones and that these rifts have been active since early in history. The distinct asymmetry between Loihi's eastern and western slopes (the eastern slopes are steeper) is attributed to mass wasting of large sections of the volcano's west flank. Two large amphitheater valleys on the seamount's west flank are believed to have resulted from repeated mass-wasting events triggered by earthquakes associated with an early rift zone whose core now lies buried beneath the block feature present on Loihi's southwest flank. The prominent kink in the present south rift zone of Loihi may represent a fundamental readjustment of along-rift magma conduits caused by gravitational slumping on the southwest flank of the volcano. Lava cones and constructional volcanic ridges are present along the rims of summit pit craters and form a continuous chain of volcanic constructs around the periphery of the summit platform. The concentric arrangement of young eruptive vents on Loihi's summit may be caused by ring dikes. Reprints. (edc)
Keywords
Mapping; Sonar; Seabeam sonar; Rift zones; Ocean bottom topography; Hawaii; Asymmetry; Ridges; Maps; Reprints; Volcanoes; Marine geology; Vents; Craters; Earthquakes; Morphology; Loihi Seamount; Valleys; Mass flow; Tectonics; Bathymetry; Sonar mapping; Volcanism; Multiple beams (Radiation); Rings; Mass wasting; Dikes; Multibeam sonar; Slope; Structural geology; Seamounts