NEHRP Clearinghouse

Costs of Reinforcing Existing Buildings and Constructing New Buildings to Meet Earthquake Codes.
Larrabee, R. D.; Whitman, R. V.
National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Research Applied to National Needs., June 1976, 90 p.
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The costs of constructing new buildings to seismic codes are reviewed. A particular building, designed with and without seismic load is examined; design for seismic load increased with total cost 2.8 percent. Some impacts of the implementation of a new seismic code are discussed. Methods of reinforcing existing buildings are discussed. Estimated costs for reinforcing 156 buildings are presented. Reinforcing costs are on the order of $5 to $18 per square foot for masonry bearing wall buildings. Costs are lower for other structural types or buildings with previous seismic design. Costs are higher for older buildings, smaller buildings and historic buildings. The percentage of older existing buildings is estimated; an examination of U.S. codes illustrates how few existing buildings were designed for seismic load.
Seismic design; Earthquake resistant structures; Safety factor; Seismic risk; Ground motion; Earthquake engineering; Buildings; Economic analysis; Economic impact; Construction costs; Building codes; Seismic design decision analysis; Design criteria