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Probabilistic Safety Analysis of Earth Retaining Structures during Earthquakes.
Grivas, D. A.; Souflis, C.
National Science Foundation, Washington, DC., July 1982, 150 p.
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A procedure is presented for determining the probability of failure of earth retaining structures under static or seismic conditions. Four possible modes of failure (overturning, base sliding, bearing capacity, and overall sliding) are examined and their combined effect is evaluated with the aid of combinatorial analysis. The probability of failure is shown to be a more adequate measure of safety than the customary factor of safety. As earth retaining structures may fail in four distinct modes, a system analysis can provide a single estimate for the possibility of failure. A Bayesian formulation of the safety of retaining walls is found to provide an improved measure for the predicted probability of failure under seismic loading. The presented Bayesian analysis can account for the damage incurred to a retaining wall during an earthquake to provide an improved estimate for its probability of failure during future seismic events.
Ground motion; Bearing capacity; Computer programs; Retaining walls; BASIC programming language; Earthquakes; Bayes theorem; Probability theory; TRS-80 computers; Dynamic loads; Bridge abutments; Dynamic structural analysis