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Stabilization of Potentially Liquefiable Sand Deposits Using Gravel Drain Systems.
Seed, H. B.; Booker, J. R.
National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., April 1976, 65 p.
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In many cases, the installation of a system of vertical columnar drains offers an attractive and economical procedure for stabilizing an otherwise potentially liquefiable sand deposit. In fact, the method has already been used in one case involving the construction of stone columns in a relatively loose sand deposit and it is currently being proposed for stabilization of a medium dense sand layer which is known to have developed some degree of liquefaction in a recent earthquake but which appears to be too dense for stabilization by further densification using currently available procedures. The report presents a simplified theory which provides a convenient basis for evaluating the possible effectiveness of a gravel drain system in such cases. Where appropriate, additional analyses may readily be made using the computer program LARF described in the report but for most practical cases, it is believed that the results presented in chart form will provide an adequate basis for design and selection of a suitable drain system for effective stabilization of potentially liquefiable sand deposits.
Soils; Soil stabilization; Earthquake engineering; Pore pressure; Soil pressure; Liquefaction (Soils); LARF computer program; Computer programs; Foundations; Underground drains; Earthquakes